Based on recent election results, attention has focused on what is in store for the federal transfer tax system. This article discusses the status of the current transfer tax laws and President Biden’s proposals for changes.
Estate, Gift, and Generation-Skipping Transfer Taxes
Three federal taxes affect the transfer of wealth: gift tax, estate tax and generation-skipping transfer (GST) tax. Not all transfers are subject to transfer tax. The gift tax (which applies to lifetime transfers) and estate tax (which applies to transfers at death) are “unified,” meaning that a single rate schedule applies to both taxes and there is a single “exemption” amount that each individual may transfer during life or at death without paying gift or estate taxes. The GST tax is an additional tax imposed on certain transfers made to persons more than one generation below the donor. The GST tax applies to transfers during life and to transfers at and after death.
As part of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) of 2017, the gift, estate and GST exemptions were doubled in 2018 from $5 million to $10 million, indexed for inflation from 2011. The 2021 gift, estate and GST exemptions are currently $11.7 million. The exemption amount is scheduled to “sunset,” or return to its pre-TCJA level, on January 1, 2026. The applicable tax rate for transfers in excess of $11,700,000 is 40%.
For married persons, the federal estate tax exemption amount is portable. This means that if an appropriate election is made in a timely manner on the federal estate tax return of the first spouse to die, the surviving spouse may receive and utilize during his or her lifetime or at death any portion of the first spouse’s unused exemption amount. Thus, if a spouse should die without fully utilizing his or her federal exemption amount, it is not necessarily lost.
Unlike the federal estate tax exemption, the GST exemption is not portable between spouses, meaning that if one spouse dies without fully utilizing his or her GST exemption, any unused exemption is lost.
During his campaign, President Biden released a number of high-level proposals that would undo much of the TCJA. Though many of the proposals lacked detail, they included the following:
- Accelerate the “sunset” of increased exemptions before January 1, 2026.
- Increase the estate tax rate to 45%, with exemptions of $3.5 million for estate and GST tax and an exemption of $1 million for gift tax (not indexed for inflation, but the estate tax exemption would be portable to the surviving spouse). Note that this proposal is somewhat inconsistent with returning the exemptions to pre-TCJA levels. It was originally issued during the Obama administration in the “Green Book” of fiscal proposals.
- Tax appreciated assets at capital gains rates upon a transfer by gift or death (with th